The user interacts with the main system that we are describing.
Case series are at the bottom, contained in the rubric: But, despite this lowly position, there are many instances where valuable knowledge has come from someone taking the trouble to write up cases that are out of the ordinary. Two modern classics are the reports of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men 1 and of hepatocellular adenomata in women taking oral contraceptives.
There is another circumstance in which authors should write, and journals should publish, descriptive accounts of case series. On the other hand, it must be admitted that descriptive studies have serious limitations.
One is that retrospective reviews of case notes are rarely complete. Who can say whether the outcomes of the missing cases might have been very different? Another is that quirks in the way that unusual cases get referred make it hard to feel confident in generalizing from the experience of one centre.
A third, as Grimes and Schulz have pointed out, 3 is that without a comparison group, causal inferences about temporal associations need to be treated with deep suspicion.
At best, descriptions of case series act as catalysts for further investigation by methods that are more systematic.
At worst, they can cause useful treatments to be abandoned think of recent events concerning the MMR vaccine or potentially harmful procedures to be adopted remember past obstetric enthusiasm for routine fetal monitoring in pregnancy.
Sometimes they construct diseases of doubtful validity but remarkable longevity. Systematic reviews of observational studies are much harder to carry out and interpret than systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials. The main difficulties lie in coping with the diversity of study designs used by investigators, and the biases inherent in most observational studies.
So what should authors and readers expect from the QJM?
A good case report will be clear about the importance of the observation being reported. If multiple case reports show something similar, the next step might be a case-control study to determine if there is a relationship between the relevant variables. A case series is a descriptive study that follows a group of patients who have a similar diagnosis or who are undergoing the same procedure over a certain period of time. As there is no experimental protocol or control for allocation of patients to treatment, surgeons and patients decide on whether or not treatment is given, making the clinical sample representative of a common clinical population. Learn what is a Test Case with step-by-step Test Case Design techniques and examples. Series of hands-on tutorials on how to write effective Test cases.
No prizes for guessing that we are becoming unenthusiastic about reports of single cases. Even so, where they are of exceptional interest and written concisely, we may offer publication in the correspondence columns.
Reports of case series will be given a warmer welcome, particularly if the circumstances are such that it would be unreasonable to demand a more systematic approach. At the same time, the condition that they describe must not be so rare that few readers of the journal will ever encounter a case. The investigators will need, however, to have been rigorous in their methodology and to have synthesized a useful amount of evidence.
Reviews that conclude that there have been few studies, all of poor quality, and that further research is needed make poor reading.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: N Engl J Med.Aug 21, · Case study and series Differences in aims A case study or case report is like a case series but it includes only one individual: • The aim is to describe a single and unusual incident or case.
When I decided to do this local online marketing series I asked my good friend Dennis Yu of BlitzLocal to write a guest post. Since you people love case studies, I asked for it to be a case study.
A good student brief will include a summary of the pertinent facts and legal points raised in the case. It will show the nature of the litigation, who sued whom, based on what occurrences, and what happened in the lower court/s.
A search for case series or case reports may reveal information that will assist in a diagnosis. However, for any reasonably well-known condition you should be able to get better evidence.
Case series and case reports, since they use no control group with which to compare outcomes, have no statistical validity. Affordable Papers is an online writing service which has helped students from the UK, US, and Europe for more than 10 years.
Our great experience enables us to provide papers of the best quality. The main secrets of our good reputation are trustful relationships with customers and talented academic writers who always create first-chop papers from scratch.
A case series is a descriptive study that follows a group of patients who have a similar diagnosis or who are undergoing the same procedure over a certain period of time. As there is no experimental protocol or control for allocation of patients to treatment, surgeons and patients decide on whether or not treatment is given, making the clinical.